The main treatment for allergic rhinitis and nasal polyps is medical. Surgery may be required for nasal blockages that develop in the course of these illnesses. Currently, drugs are used to treat allergies, but surgery may be necessary at certain stages of the illness. However, treatment with drugs should continue even after surgery to prevent the recurrence of the illness.
The intervention commonly known as bionic ear surgery involves surgery for the placement of a cochlear implant and an auditory brainstem implant. These surgeries are used when the patient has extensive hearing loss or suffers from an underdeveloped auditory nerve or inner ear. These surgeries are most commonly carried out at the Hacettepe University center.
We prefer to use general anesthetic during nose surgery, provided that a very important condition with the patient does not prevent its use or the patient wishes to use another option. General anesthetic is preferred to ensure comfort and convenience for both the patient and the surgeon.
In adults, nasal blockages may be caused by a deviated septum, enlarged turbinates (concha hypertrophy), conditions causing the nasal mucosa to become enlarged (influenza, allergies), nasal polyps commonly observed with allergies and sinusitis. Whereas swelling in the nasal mucosa may be treated with drugs, other conditions causing nasal blockages may require surgery if they are severe enough to affect quality of life and cause the patient to breathe through their mouths for the majority of the day and night.
Infections in the upper respiratory tract usually result from viral infections. They can generally be treated without having to resort to the use of antibiotics. Antibiotics may be needed if you require a doctor’s assistance during an acute attack. If infections occur frequently, then an examination may need to be conducted by a doctor to check for problems with the immune system. If your child’s illness shows no signs of relief, then taking a break from kindergarten may help improve his condition.
In such cases a detailed ear examination should be carried out and a medical history obtained before a series of audio tests are conducted. The test should be conducted and interpreted at an experienced audiology center in order not to overlook a possible loss in hearing. A hearing aid should be prescribed to patients that are diagnosed with hearing loss and the problem should be monitored.
If your child sleeps with their mouth open or snores or complains of breathing difficulties during sleep, this indicates the presence of an enlarged adenoid in the posterior of the nasal cavity that is blocking the nasal passage. In such cases an ear, nose and throat specialist should be consulted. The adenoid may have to be removed through surgery depending on the outcome of the examination.
No. This is a misconception. Tonsils are a defense mechanism of the respiratory system. However, if it leads to chronic illnesses and blockages, they may be doing more harm than good. Removing the tonsils in such cases will not lead to increased infections or more severe symptoms than usual. Our body has numerous defense mechanisms that will be able to fend off illnesses in the absence of tonsils.
No. This is a fluid that builds up in your child’s ear when they suffer from an upper respiratory tract infection. While this may dry up on its own after the infection has abated, it may persist afterwards in some children. The bath water escaping into the ear will be present in the outer ear. The fluid being referred to here is present behind the eardrum.
The buildup of fluid in your child’s ear is due to an infection your child has suffered in their upper respiratory tract. No additional treatment is necessary if the body is able to expel the fluid after a certain time. However, in cases where the presence of the fluid persists, this may lead to loss of hearing in the child and may result in complications requiring ear surgery. The child will need to be closely monitored to avoid this. If the fluid is not depleted after three months, then a surgical intervention involving the placement of a tube inside the ear drum will be required to ventilate the ear.
The most common cause of dizziness is sudden loss of blood pressure resulting from the person rising quickly from a sleeping or sitting position. This is known as orthostatic hypotension. This can generally be prevented by taking care to make such movements more slowly. Another common cause is BPPV, sometimes referred to as the dislodging of ear crystals. This condition involves the microscopic crystals in the inner ear’s balance center being displaced from their usual location, resulting in severe bouts of dizziness. The condition is purely due to mechanics. Diagnosis and treatment can easily and quickly be carried out with a series of maneuvers. While other causes of dizziness are quite rare, they can be diagnosed and treated with ease at our ear, nose, and throat department.
Not all snorers suffer from sleep apnea. However, since most suffers of sleep apnea are also snorers, this can be considered a symptom of sleep apnea. Even if a snorer is not diagnosed with sleep apnea, they should exercise caution as they may be at risk of developing sleep apnea in the future.
The most common cause of ringing is loss of hearing due to age. This can be easily diagnosed with a hearing test. The role of subsequent drug treatments is limited. A number of very different treatments for this problem are successfully applied at the audiology unit of the Hacettepe Ear Nose and Throat department.
The condition known as otosclerosis is only encountered in humans and is a bone illness that affects the inner ear. Here, the movement of the stapes is impaired and can result in conductive hearing loss. The condition is more common in women and can lead to greater loss in hearing during pregnancy. Surgery is employed to treat the illness. The upper portion of the stapes is taken out by raising the eardrum and a special prosthetic is attached to the hole drilled in the footplate.
Laryngeal is the most common cancer observed in the head-neck area and is also the most fatal. The greatest risk factor for the illness is the smoking of cigarettes and consumption of other tobacco products. The risk is also greater for those having to spend an extended amount of time in areas where they have to endure second-hand smoke. Other risk factors include alcohol, genetic predisposition and air pollution.
For tumors that have taken hold in the vocal folds, removing the affected vocal fold by avoiding the tumor during biopsy is generally sufficient for both the diagnosis and the treatment. In the more advanced stages of the illness, a more comprehensive treatment may be employed that includes radiotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, or a partial or complete laryngectomy, depending on the location of the tumor and other factors specific to the patient. Once again, depending on the growth stage of the tumor and its location, these patients may undergo a single or double-sided “neck dissection” that involves the clearing of lymph nodes present in the neck.
Laryngeal cancer occurs when there is uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the throat. The cancer cells may spread inside the throat or to adjacent tissues or to more distant parts of the body. 80-90% of cases of laryngeal cancers are due to smoking. The odds of developing cancer increases with the amount of cigarettes smoked and the length of time the habit continues. After quitting smoking, the chance of developing cancer is gradually reduced, with the risk being half that of smokers after five years. Laryngeal cancer is also a risk for non-smokers who have to endure second-hand smoke for extended periods of time.
After receiving an account of the patient’s medical history their symptoms are evaluated and a detailed physical examination is carried out. This may be supported by a CAT scan and/or an MRI, depending on the findings from the physical examination. A biopsy and a pathological test of the extracted tissue should be carried out to ensure an accurate diagnosis. The biopsy is carried out under a general anesthetic and direct examination. During biopsy, the lesion can be observed by determining the areas to which the tumor has spread. For tumors that have occurred in the vocal folds, the fold in question can be removed, depending on the condition of the lesion, thereby making it possible to both biopsy and treat the illness.
With the exception of those that have developed in the vocal folds, symptoms of laryngeal cancer will not present during the early phase of the illness. That is why the great majority of sufferers do not become aware of these symptoms until the advanced stages of the illness. However, tumors that have occurred inside the vocal folds can be detected early on if the patient complains about loss of voice. Other symptoms, in addition to voice loss, include swallowing difficulties and swelling in the neck. Other common symptoms are: extensive bouts of coughing that show no signs of abating, breathing difficulties, fatigue, loss of appetite and weight loss.
Sinusitis usually develops after an upper respiratory tract infection known as ‘influenza’. It occurs due to a bacterial infection in the sinuses known as sinusitis, and is caused by a blockage of drainage passageways for the nasal mucous. Sinusitis may also be caused by bone deformities, allergic rhinitis, polyps caused by nasal mucous, adenoids and enlarged turbinates. The main treatment for sinusitis is the treatment of the illness that is causing the condition. Surgery may be necessary if treatment of the illness does not result in the desired outcome or when the sinus problem becomes chronic.